Here are some terms commonly used in Stereo Photography:
- 2 x 2 x2 Format (also known as twinned format,
50mm x 50mm)
- 2x2 is a method of mounting/viewing where the left and right film images of a stereo pair are
mounted in separate 2 x 2 mounts as opposed to a Rochwite
sometimes called Realist mount. It has an advantage of needing no special mounting (when
starting with a conventional camera and twinning or using a slide bar) for the film when viewed in a
2 x 2
- Achromatic Lens
- An Achromatic lens is a system of lenses joined
in order to minimize color and shape distortions (chromatic and spherical aberrations)
that are inherent in a single lens system.
- This is a stereo image where the left and right images are color converted so that only
one of the image can be viewed through a corresponding color gel. The two colors
used are complementary to each other, and the images are then put together on the same
image base allowing the channels to be separated later by the viewer using so called 3d glasses (usually red/blue or red/green). This is used in
comic books, some movies and on computer screens. Recently green
magenta and blue amber (Colorcode) have been added.
- 'Cha-Cha' Method aka Rock and Roll
- A method of stereo picture taking that involves using an ordinary camera and taking a
picture for both the left and right views by shifting the taker's position from left to
right. Due to the lack of registration it is sometimes hard to get good results. However
good alignment can be insured by using a free program such as Stereo
Photo Maker with digital files.
- Cross-eyed viewing method
- A method of free-viewing stereo pairs where the left eye
image is placed on the right side of a stereo pair and the right eye image is placed on
the left side. It is generally believed to be easier to learn than the parallel method and can be done with substantially
larger images. However, it cannot be used on most stereo cards since they are
printed in parallel format.
- DLP Link Glasses
- Shutter glasses that are specifically made for DLP link projectors and
certain TVs. The synchronization signal for these are sent from the
screen using white light and not from a separate transmitter.
- European Format
- A stereo format which uses stereo pairs of 7 perforations (film sprockets) per
image. This is used with the Fed, Belplasca, and some other European stereo
- European Format, (dimensions in mm) AutoCAD
drawing courtesy of Ralph Johnston.
- Free Viewing
- Viewing stereo images (in stereo) without the benefit of a viewer. May be done
both in the cross-eyed and parallel viewing method.
- Full Frame Stereo Format
- A stereo format which uses stereo pairs of 8 perforations (film sprockets) per image
width. This would be the same as a conventional camera and is used on twin camera
stereo photographs and with certain RBT cameras. The Fed
Camera can be modified to full frame.
- Holmes Format
- A format for stereo cards which are based on a stereoscope invented by Oliver Wendall
Holmes. This is the format for most antique cards and have image centers that are
further apart than the human eye (3-1/2" x 7"). This is significant because any viewing device for
such cards needs to have a mechanism for bending light before it reaches the eyes.
Most viewers are prismatic. Later formats for cards were not as large
- Various card formats, (dimensions in mm) AutoCAD
drawing courtesy of Ralph Johnston.
- The stereo base (distance between the two taking lenses) is greater than the average
distance between a persons eyes (~63mm).
- The stereo base (distance between the two taking lenses) is less than the average
distance between a persons eyes (~63mm). This is usually achieved with a specialized
camera or by using a single camera and a sliding camera bar.
- Interocular adjustment (also known as variable
- A provision in some stereo viewers which allows for adjustment of the distance between
the lenses of the viewer to correspond with the image's infinity separation and in some
cases the distance between a viewers eyes.
- JPS Stereo format
- Stereo image extension, mostly used in Java where a stereo image is saved
in a default cross-eyed image (*.jps) but can then be viewed on a web page
in any format.
- Macro Stereo Photography
- Macro Stereo Photography is stereo photography in which the image on the film is about
the same size or larger than the true size of the image.
- MPO Format
- A format for storing more than one image in a single file (*.mpo).
Used extensively for right and left pairs of stereo images, commonly shot
with modern digital stereo cameras such as the Fuji W3.
- Nimslo Format
- A stereo format which uses stereo pairs of 4.5 perforations (film sprockets) per image
width. This would be the equivalent of a half frame and is used with Nishika and
Nimslo stereo cameras. Some cameras with beamsplitters use a 4 perforation format
but this would not be called a Nimslo format.
- Nimslo (or Nishika) Format, (dimensions in mm),
AutoCAD drawing courtesy of Ralph Johnston.
- Ortho-stereoscopical Viewing
- When the focal length of your viewer's lenses is equal to that of the focal length of
the taking lenses of the camera in which the slides were viewed. This is said to
allow you to see the objects as being exactly the same size and with the same distance
between each other in the viewer as in reality (ref. Ferwerda, J., The
World of 3D,The
World of 3D, p31, 1990).
- Over/under Format
- Over/Under format involves using a mirror system to separate the left and right images
which are placed one above one another. Special mirrored viewers are made for
over/under format. The most common one is the View Magic.
Another is the KMQ viewer.
- Parallel Viewing Method
- Viewing a stereo image where the left view of a stereo image is placed on
the left and the right view is placed on the right. This is
the way most stereocards are made as opposed to cross-eyed viewing.
3D effect based on the phenomenon of dark and clear lenses. The image through the dark
lens reaches the brain slightly later than the image through the clear lens, creating the
illusion of 3D. It works with objects or scenes moving horizontally across the field of
view. The Pulfrich method of 3-D is used for TV, video and computer screens.
Although it is not authentic 3D it gives the illusion of depth and can be fun to use
when watching sporting events and videos which are specially made to take advantage of the
effect. For Pulfrich
- Viewing of stereo pair with images the depth or relief of an object is
- Realist Format
- A stereo format which uses stereo pairs of 5 perforations (film sprockets) per image
width. This is the most common stereo format and is named after the camera made by
the David White Company. It is used with the Kodak, TDC Colorist I and II, TDC
Vivid, Revere, Wollensak, Realist, along with many other cameras too numerous to mention.
Realist Format, (dimensions in mm)
AutoCAD drawing courtesy of Ralph Johnston.
- Rochwite Mount
- This is the name sometimes used to delineate the 41 x 101mm, 1-5/8" x 4"
(outer dimensions) mount used for almost all stereo slides. Mounts of these outer
dimensions are made for the Realist, European, Nimslo, and full frame formats. Named after
Seaton Rochwite, the inventor of the Realist Stereo Camera.
- Slide Bar
- Device used with a single camera to make stereo photos by moving the camera between
shots. It is more accurate than Cha-Cha and can be
used to produce 2x2 stereo format slides. We have a page
that outlines how to make a homemade slide bar.
We also offer some slide bars.
- Stereo Base
- The distance between two lenses or two cameras when taking a stereo photograph. A
normal stereo base is considered to be one which is similar to the distance between one's
right and left eyes (~65mm). A hyperstereo base would
involve lenses separated by more than that distance. More
information on selecting the correct camera spacing.
- Teco Nimslo
- A film camera which uses the Nimslo format but has been modified by Technical Enterprises to
expose only two frames per exposure as opposed to the four frames per exposure needed for
- Twin Camera Stereo Photography
- Stereo photography using two monoscopic cameras, usually with shutters and other
components connected internally or externally using mechanical or electronic means.
This photography has advantages that include using common formats (e.g. Full frame, medium format...) and being able to
achieve a variable stereo base. Drawbacks include
difficulty matching cameras, film and getting normal stereo bases. Camera
bars can be used to help achieve more consistent results.
- View-Master Personal Format
- The format used with a Viewmaster Personal Camera. It produced 2 rows of chips of
around 18 x 10mm per roll of 35mm film. These were used in conjunction with a cutter to
make View-Master reels for personal use. It is not the same method that is used for
mass market reels produced by Fisher Price.
- Wall-eyed Viewing Method
- See parallel viewing.
CAD Slide format drawings Courtesy Ralph Johnston © 1998 Ralph Johnston.
All other images © 2007 Berezin Stereo Photography.
Thanks to Dr. T, Ralph Johnson, Ray Zone and members of Photo-3D and Tech-3D for their input.